Process for evaluating a statement of historical data and information to determine if the statement is materially correct and conforms to criteria, and the citation to read “(ISO 14064-3:2019, Greenhouse gases—Specification with guidance for the verification and validation of greenhouse gas statements, 3.6.2.)

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (manmade) interference with the climate system. The treaty itself sets no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides for updates (called ‘protocols’) that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol, which has become much better known than the UNFCCC itself. Source: Wikipedia.


PDCA (plan-do-check-act or plan-do-check-adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Shewhart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan-do-study-act (PDSA). Source: Wikipedia.

management system

A management system is the framework of processes and procedures used to ensure that an organization can fulfill all tasks required to achieve its objectives. For instance, an environmental management system (EMS) enables organizations to improve their environmental performance through a process of continual improvement. An oversimplification is ‘Plan, Do, Check, Act’.

A more complete system would include accountability (an assignment of personal responsibility) and a schedule of activities to be completed, as well as auditing tools to implement corrective actions in addition to scheduled activities, creating an upward spiral of continuous improvement.

As in the case of an EMS, an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) enables an organization to control its occupational health and safety risks and to improve its performance by means of continuous improvement.

life-cycle assessment

Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. (ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework, 3.2.)

ISO Technical Committee 207

The scope of ISO Technical Committee 207 is ‘standardization in the field of environmental management to address environmental and climate impacts, including related social and economic aspects, in support of sustainable development.’ The scope excludes ‘test methods of pollutants, setting limit values and levels ofenvironmental performance, and standardization of products.’

ISO 14001

The ISO 14000 family of standards addresses various aspects of environmental management. It provides practical tools for companies and organizations looking to identify and control their environmental impacts and constantly improve their environmental performance. ISO 14001 focuses on environmental management systems. The other standards in the family focus on specific environmental aspects such as environmental labeling, environmental performance evaluation, life cycle analysis, and greenhouse gas management.

ISO 9000/9001

The ISO 9000 family of standards is related to quality management systems and designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to the product. The standards are published by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, and are available through national standards bodies. ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems, including the eight management principles on which the family of standards is based. ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard have to fulfill.

Third party certification bodies provide independent confirmation that organizations meet the requirements of ISO 9001. More than one million organizations worldwide are independently certified, making ISO 9001 one of the most widely used management tools in the world today. Source Wikipedia.

ISO – International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization, widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary industrial and commercial standards. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

While ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organization, its ability to set standards that often become law, either through treaties or national standards, makes it more powerful than most non-governmental organizations. In practice, ISO acts as a consortium with strong links to governments. Source: Wikipedia.

ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization

A specialized agency of the United Nations, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created in 1944 to promote the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation throughout the world. It sets standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety, security, efficiency and regularity, as well as for aviation environmental protection. The Organization serves as the forum for cooperation in all fields of civil aviation among its 191 Member States.